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GED 216 Unit 2 Exam (CCU)

GED 216 Intro to Sociology Unit 2 Exam


Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet)

1. Carol Gilligan’s work on the issue of self-esteem in girls showed that

a. girls begin with low self-esteem, but it gradually increases as they progress through adolescence.

b. at all ages, girls have higher self-esteem than boys.

c. at all ages, boys have higher self-esteem than girls.

d. girls begin with high levels of self-esteem, which gradually decrease as they go through adolescence.


2. George Herbert Mead considered the self to be

a. the part of an individual’s personality that is composed of self-awareness and self-image.

b. the presence of culture within the individual.

c. basic drives that are self-centered.

d. present in infants at the time of their birth.


3. Mead placed the origin of the self on

a. biological drives.

b. genetics.

c. social experience.

d. the functioning of the brain.


4. According to Mead, social experience involves

a. understanding the world in terms of our senses.

b. the exchange of symbols.

c. a mix of biological instinct and learning.

d. acting but not thinking.


5. By “taking the role of the other,” Mead had in mind

a. imagining a situation in terms of past experience.

b. recognizing that people have different views of most situations.

c. imagining a situation from another person’s point of view.

d. trading self-centeredness for a focus on helping other people.


6. When Cooley used the concept of the “looking-glass self,” he claimed that

a. people are self-centered.

b. people see themselves as they think others see them.

c. people see things only from their own point of view.

d. our actions are a reflection of our values.




7. According to Mead, children learn to take the role of the other as they model themselves on important people in their lives, such as parents. Mead referred to these people as

a. role models.

b. looking-glass models.

c. significant others.

d. the generalized other.


8. In Mead’s model, which sequence correctly orders stages of the developing self?

a. imitation, play, game, generalized other.

b. imitation, generalized other, play, game

c. imitation, game, play, generalized other

d. imitation, generalized other, game, play


9. Mead used the concept “generalized other” to refer to

a. important individuals in the child’s life.

b. a person who provides complete care for a child.

c. any “significant other.”

d. widespread cultural norms and values people take as their own.


10. Mead would agree that

a. socialization ends with the development of self in childhood.

b. if you won $100 million in a lottery, yourself might change.

c. people are puppets with little control over their lives.

d. human behavior reflects both nature and nurture.


11. Erik H. Erikson’s view of socialization states that

a. personality develops over the entire life course.

b. personality involves tensions between the forces of biology and forces of culture.

c. we come to see ourselves as we think others see us.

d. most of our personality development takes place in childhood.


12. Critics of Erikson’s theory of personality development point out that

a. not everyone confronts the stages in the exact order given by Erikson.

b. his theories are difficult to test scientifically.

c. a large percentage of people never reach the last stage of development.

d. his research suffers from a gender bias.


13. Family is important to the socialization process because

a. family members are often what Mead called “generalized others.”

b. families pass along social identity to children in terms of class, ethnicity, and religion.

c. families begin the process of anticipatory socialization.

d. families set the stage for resocialization.


14. Shawna is an excellent artist, but as a mother, she feels that she cannot work and devote enough time to her family. She is experiencing

a. role conflict.

b. role strain.

c. role ambiguity.

d. role exit.


15. Which concept refers to the tension among roles connected to a single status?

a. role conflict

b. role strain

c. role ambiguity

d. role exit


16. Which concept is involved when a surgeon chooses not to operate on her own son because the personal involvement of motherhood could impair her professional objectivity as a physician?

a. role conflict

b. role strain

c. role ambiguity

d. role exit


17. Which concept is involved when a plant supervisor wants to be a good friend and confidant to the workers, but must remain distant in order to rate the workers’ performances?

a. role conflict

b. role strain

c. role ambiguity

d. role exit


18. What is the term for the process by which people disengage from important social roles?

a. role rejection

b. role reversal

c. role loss

d. role exit


19. Rebuilding relationships with people who knew you in an earlier period of life is a common experience for those who are undergoing

a. role conflict.

b. role strain.

c. role ambiguity.

d. role exit.



20. Which concept is used to designate the process by which people creatively shape reality as they interact?

a. status interaction

b. social construction of reality

c. interactive reality

d. role reality


21. Flirting is a playful way of seeing if someone is interested in you without risking outright rejection. From this point of view, flirting illustrates

a. the Thomas theorem.

b. the process of role exit.

c. the social construction of reality.

d. street smarts.


22. The Thomas theorem states that

a. a role is as a role does.

b. people rise to their level of incompetence.

c. situations defined as real are real in their consequences.

d. people know the world only through their language.


23. Garfinkel’s research, an approach called ethnomethodology, involves

a. studying the way people make sense of their everyday surroundings.

b. tracking people’s roles over the life course.

c. the study of interaction in terms of theatrical performance.

d. studying unfamiliar cultural systems.


24. An example of a secondary group is

a. a fraternity chapter meeting on campus.

b. a Microsoft Corporation awards banquet.

c. parents meeting with their daughter and her coach.

d. girl scouts at a cookout.


25. In general, we see a(n) _______ as a means to an end; we see a(n) _____ as an end in itself.

a. expressive group; instrumental group

b. crowd; category

c. secondary group; primary group

d primary group; secondary group

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