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GED 216 Final Exam (CCU)

Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet) 

  1. Almost all of Latin America and Asia falls into the category of 
    1. low-income nations. 
    2. middle-income nations. 
    3. high-income nations. 
    4. socially marginalized nations. 
  2. Understanding the differences between countries encourages 
    1. global poverty. 
    2. gender inequality. 
    3. understanding of both of our own lives and the lives of others. 
    4. global wealth. 
  3. About 1.4 million immigrants enter the United States each year and many (including Arnold Schwarzenegger and Gloria Estefan) have become well known. These facts support the conclusion that 
    1. the world’s nations are increasingly interconnected. 
    2. other nations have little effects on life in rich countries such as the United States. 
    3. people around the world share little in terms of their ways of life. 
    4. sociology does not have to pay attention to nations other than the United States. 
  4. Gaining a global understanding is 
    1. unimportant because the United States is so rich and there is little reason for us to learn about other nations. 
    2. important for college students because most new U.S. jobs involve international trade. 
    3. unimportant since there is no longer very much poverty in the world. 
    4. important although people the world over have ways of life that are mostly the same. 
  5. Social problems in the United States, such as poverty and gender inequality, are 
    1. less serious in poorer countries. 
    2. more serious in poorer countries. 
    3. equally serious in poorer countries. 
    4. unheard of in poorer countries. 

Final Examination 

  1. Sarah is spending a summer living in another country where people have a way of life that differs from her own. A sociologist might expect that this experience would lead her to 
    1. end up with a greater understanding of both a new way of life and her own way of life. 
    2. accept what people in the United States call “common sense.” 
    3. assume that people’s lives simply reflect the choices they make. 
    4. gradually understand less and less about her own way of life. 
  2. Making use of the sociological perspective encourages 
    1. challenging commonly-held beliefs. 
    2. accepting commonly-held wisdom. 
    3. the belief that society is mysterious. 
    4. people to be happy with their lives as they are. 
  3. Sociologist Lenore Weitzman carried out research showing that women who divorce 
    1. typically remarry within one year. 
    2. claim they are happier than before. 
    3. suffer a significant loss of income. 
    4. have a happier sex life. 

9. If 

you have been criticized for “androcentricity” in your research, you are being criticized for 

  1. overgeneralizing your results. 
  2. ignoring gender entirely. 
  3. doing the research from a male perspective. 
  4. using double standards in your research. 

10. If
only males as subjects, you would correctly point to the problem called 

you read a study that draws conclusions about all of humanity based on research using 

  1. androcentricity. 
  2. overgeneralization. 
  3. gender blindness. 
  4. using double standards. 

11. You are doing research and you never stop to think about the possible importance of gender. Your work could be criticized for the problem called 

  1. androcentricity. 
  2. overgeneralization. 
  3. gender blindness. 
  4. employing double standards. 

Final Examination 

  1. Regarding ethical research guidelines, the American Sociological Association states that researchers
    a. must always perform their research several times in order to ensure its accuracy. b. need not disclose their sources of funding for the research.
    c. must protect the privacy of subjects taking part in a research project.
    d. are not responsible for the safety of subjects taking part in a research project. 
  2. If you were to conduct sociological research that closely follows the logic of science, which research method would you most likely use? 
    1. interviews 
    2. the experiment 
    3. questionnaires 
    4. participant observation 
  3. “A statement of a possible relationship between two or more variables” is the definition of which concept? 
    1. theory 
    2. correlation 
    3. spurious correlation 
    4. hypothesis 
  4. Three researchers wish to test the effects of playing soft music during an exam on the test performance of their sociology students. They conduct an experiment in which one test-taking class hears music and another does not. In experimental terms, the class hearing the music is called 
    1. the placebo. 
    2. the control group. 
    3. the experimental group. 
    4. the dependent variable. 
  5. What term refers to any change in a subject’s behavior that is caused by the awareness of being studied? 
    1. invalid response 
    2. unreliable response 
    3. the Stanford effect 
    4. the Hawthorne effect 


Final Examination 

  1. What research method was used in Philip Zimbardo’s study, the “Stanford County Prison”? 
    1. an experiment 
    2. a survey 
    3. participant observation 
    4. secondary analysis 
  2. Our society has entered a postindustrial, computer-based phase, gaining 
    1. symbolic skills have become more important. 
    2. mechanical skills have become more important. 
    3. knowledge about the past has become more important. 
    4. a respect for tradition has become more important. 
  3. More than ______ people have immigrated to the U.S. between the years 1820 and 2012. 
    1. 1 million 
    2. 10 million 
    3. 50 million 
    4. 80 million 
  4. The distinction between high culture and popular culture is based mostly on 
    1. how advanced the cultural pattern is. 
    2. how long the cultural pattern has existed. 
    3. the social standing of the people who display the cultural pattern. 
    4. how interesting the cultural pattern is. 
  5. Sometimes the distinction between high culture and popular culture is not so clear, as shown 

by the television show Here Comes Honey Boo-Boo, because 

  1. the family in this show was always very rich. 
  2. reality shows have made families that were low-income nationally-known media stars who
    are now earning a lot more money. 
  3. Honey Boo Boo’s mother is a previous Miss America pageant winner. 
  4. reality television never shows people who appear to be of low social position. 

22. Cultural patterns that are widespread among a society’s population are referred to as 

  1. high culture. 
  2. popular culture. 
  3. elite culture. 
  4. established culture. 
  1. If you were to attend a New York Ballet performance, you would be experiencing
    a. high culture.
    b. popular culture.
    c. cultural transmission. d. virtual culture. 
  2. Hip-hop music and the DJ scene first emerged 
    1. on college campuses in the 1980s. 
    2. in NYC in the mid 1970s. 
    3. among rich people in the 1990s as part of elite culture. 
    4. in the South as part of that region’s tradition culture. 
  3. Subculture refers to 
    1. a part of the population lacking culture. 
    2. people who embrace popular culture. 
    3. cultural patterns that set off a part of a society’s population. 
    4. people who embrace high culture. 
  4. Harley Davidson motorcycle riders, computer programmers, and jazz musicians all display _____ patterns. 
    1. high cultural 
    2. popular cultural 
    3. virtual cultural 
    4. subcultural 
  5. Multiculturalism is defined as 
    1. efforts to encourage immigration to the United States. 
    2. efforts to establish English as the official language of the United States. 
    3. a perspective recognizing the cultural diversity of the United States and promoting
      equality of all cultural traditions. 
    4. the idea that the United States should have a single, dominant culture. 
  6. About how many people in the United States speak a language other than English at home? 
    1. 7 million 
    2. 17 million 
    3. 27 million 
    4. 61 million 

Final Examination 

  1. Marx described the widespread beliefs that supported the capitalist economic system as 
    1. false consciousness. 
    2. class consciousness. 
    3. cultural awareness. 
    4. revolutionary politics. 
  2. Marx called those who own and operate factories and other businesses in pursuit of profits
    a. proletarians. b. peasants.
    c. capitalists. d. burghers. 
  3. As the suffering of workers became worse, Marx predicted that they would 
    1. eventually starve to death. 
    2. rise up against the capitalist system. 
    3. go into business for themselves. 
    4. demand that women as well as men join the labor force. 
  4. As Marx used this concept, “alienation” meant 
    1. the sense of not knowing right from wrong. 
    2. that most people do not want to work at all. 
    3. that people object to highly specialized work. 
    4. the experience of isolation and misery resulting from powerlessness. 
  5. Marx described alienation from the act of working, the products of work, and 
    1. from society. 
    2. from the family. 
    3. from other workers. 
    4. from the global community. 

34. In 

the socialist society Marx hoped to see, which of the following would be true? 

  1. Capitalists would pay fair wages to workers. 
  2. Class conflict would no longer exist. 
  3. All people would do the same work. 
  4. Factory technology would be abolished. 

Final Examination 

35. Karl Marx used a philosophical approach called _____, while Max Weber followed an approach called _____. 

  1. tradition; rationality 
  2. rationality; tradition 
  3. materialism; idealism 
  4. idealism; materialism 

36. To 

compare societies at different times in history, Max Weber made use of 

  1. ideal types. 
  2. stereotypes. 
  3. statistical rates. 
  4. speculation. 
  1. What Lenski called the industrial society and Marx called the capitalist society, Weber considered 
    1. a technological society. 
    2. an ideal society. 
    3. a traditional society. 
    4. a rational society. 
  2. How did Weber describe the thought patterns of the members of traditional societies? 
    1. People look open-mindedly to the future. 
    2. People pass the same values and beliefs from generation to generation. 
    3. People live in the present, paying little attention to the past or the future. 
    4. People strive to be more and more productive. 
  3. When Weber used the concept “rationality,” he had in mind 
    1. a concern with what’s good for the entire community. 
    2. a respect for tradition. 
    3. deliberate, matter-of-fact calculation of the most efficient way to accomplish any task. 
    4. limiting the extent of class conflict. 
  4. Karl Marx considered capitalism to be _____, but Max Weber argued that capitalism was very _____. 
    1. irrational; rational 
    2. rational; irrational 
    3. unproductive; productive 
    4. productive; unproductive 

Final Examination 

  1. In describing the rationalization of society, Max Weber claimed that modern society had become 
    1. more religious. 
    2. disenchanted. 
    3. full of anomie. 
    4. less productive. 
  2. Thinking about how patterns of child-rearing vary by class, lower-class parents generally stress _____, while well-to-do parents typically stress _____. 
    1. independence; protecting children 
    2. independence; dependence 
    3. obedience; creativity 
    4. creativity; obedience 
  3. Communities differ in terms of the racial composition of the population. In which of the following regions of the United States are there a relatively high number of people who claim 

to be racially mixed? 

  1. the Southwest, including Arizona and southern California 
  2. the Plains States, including North Dakota and South Dakota 
  3. the New England states of Maine and New Hampshire 
  4. the Rocky Mountain states of Montana and Wyoming 
  1. On the basis of Melvin Kohn’s study of what parents expect of their children, high-income parents are likely to be most concerned when their child 
    1. is given a “tardy slip” for being late to school. 
    2. needs to be told what he should draw during free art time. 
    3. is labeled a “nonconformist.” 
    4. is said to have an “active imagination.” 
  2. One contribution of schooling to the socialization process that teaches about rules and schedules is 
    1. exposing the child to a bureaucratic setting. 
    2. exposing the child to people of similar social backgrounds. 
    3. teaching children to be highly flexible and to express their individuality. 
    4. helping children break free of gender roles. 
  1. Today, the factor people most commonly use in deciding if a person has reached adulthood is noting if the young woman or young man 
    1. has completed all schooling. 
    2. has a full-time job, with the ability to support a family. 
    3. is married. 
    4. is married and has children. 
  2. The special importance of the peer group is the fact that it 
    1. has a greater effect than parents on children’s long-term goals. 
    2. lets children escape the direct supervision of parents. 
    3. gives children experience in an impersonal setting. 
    4. halts the socialization process for a brief period. 
  3. A ______ might be a prop in the classroom performance of a professor. 
    1. backpack 
    2. lectern 
    3. cell phone 
    4. confident tone of voice 
  4. The power relationship between a physician and patient is immediately evident when the patient enters the doctor’s office because 
    1. it is up to patients to decide when they will see the doctor. 
    2. the physician is there to greet the patient. 
    3. patients must wait until a “gatekeeper” admits them to see the doctor in the office’s
      “back region.” 
    4. patients generally address physicians by their first names. 
  5. Research suggests that 
    1. men “read” women better than women “read” men. 
    2. women “read” men better than men “read” women. 
    3. neither sex is any better at “reading” the other. 
    4. both sexes can “read” behavior of own sex better than the other sex. 
  6. Nonverbal communication refers to 
    1. body movements, gestures, and facial expressions. 
    2. instant messaging and other e-communication. 
    3. written language. 
    4. beliefs assumed to be true by everyone. 

Final Examination 

  1. The idea that social inequality is harmful and divides society is associated with the 
    1. structural-functional approach. 
    2. social-conflict approach. 
    3. symbolic-interaction approach. 
    4. social-exchange approach. 
  2. Max Weber claimed that social position was based on a person’s 
    1. economic class, degree of social status, and amount of power. 
    2. innate abilities alone. 
    3. birth alone. 
    4. innate intelligence, birth, and skin color. 
  3. Marx thought of inequality in terms of two main classes. In contrast, Weber envisioned inequality in terms of 
    1. a socioeconomic ranking. 
    2. three main classes. 
    3. everyone gradually sinking into poverty. 
    4. society as one large middle class. 
  4. Max Weber claimed that agrarian societies give special importance to which dimension of social inequality? 
    1. economic class 
    2. social prestige or honor 
    3. power 
    4. control of information 
  5. Marx claimed social stratification would end with the creation of a socialist economy. What was Weber’s view? 
    1. Weber thought socialism would reduce economic differences but also create a political elite, increasing differences in power. 
    2. Weber thought capitalism could not be changed. 
    3. Weber thought socialism would create a new high-prestige nobility. 
    4. Weber agreed with Marx. 
  1. A common micro-level pattern involving social interaction is that
    a. social stratification is not usually evident in everyday life.
    b. most people live and work in socially diverse settings in terms of social stratification. c. people tend to socialize with others of about the same social position.
    d. social position has little to do with the friends people have. 
  2. To impress her friends, Laura wears an expensive dress to a party. A sociologist might say Laura is engaging in 
    1. structural social mobility. 
    2. relative deprivation. 
    3. reference group behavior. 
    4. conspicuous consumption. 
  3. Which of the following types of societies comes closest to being egalitarian? 
    1. hunting and gathering 
    2. horticultural/pastoral 
    3. industrial 
    4. postindustrial 
  4. According to Simon Kuznets, in which type of society is the extent of social stratification greatest? 
    1. hunting and gathering 
    2. horticultural/pastoral 
    3. agrarian 
    4. industrial 
  5. Which of the following types of societies has no categories of people who are better off than others? 
    1. industrial societies 
    2. hunting and gathering societies 
    3. agrarian societies 
    4. horticultural and pastoral societies 
  1. Looking around the world today, income inequality is greatest in which region? 
    1. North America 
    2. Latin America 
    3. Europe 
    4. China 
  2. Based on what you have read, as the United States develops a postindustrial economy, economic inequality is 
    1. likely to disappear. 
    2. decreasing. 
    3. holding at about the same level. 
    4. increasing. 
  3. The historical trend that states that advances in technology first increase but then flatten social inequality is 
    1. conspicuous consumption. 
    2. The Davis-Moore thesis. 
    3. the bell curve. 
    4. the Kuznets curve. 
  4. The category of the U.S. population in which women do most of the housework is 
    1. unemployed people. 
    2. unmarried people. 
    3. people with no children. 
    4. employed, married, people who have children. 
  5. When it comes to gender and schooling, 
    1. more girls than boys learn secreterial skills and take vocational classes. 
    2. more girls than boys are placed in special education classes. 
    3. most disciplinary problems in schools involve girls. 
    4. disciplinary problems in schools involve boys and girls equally. 
  6. Women earn what share of all associate’s and bachelor’s degrees in the United States? 
    1. 39 percent 
    2. 49 percent 
    3. 59 percent 
    4. 69 percent 

Final Examination 

  1. As of 2013, women held about what share of seats in Congress?
    a. 18% House; 20% Senate b. 39% House; 10% Senate c. 59% House; 35% Senate d. 79% House; 5% Senate 
  2. In which of the following nations does the political power of women come closest to that of men? 
    1. United States 
    2. Norway 
    3. China 
    4. Cuba 
  3. Women have served in the U.S. armed forces 
    1. since World War II. 
    2. since the Vietnam War. 
    3. since the Persian Gulf War. 
    4. since colonial times. 
  4. What is at the heart of the controversy over women’s participation in the military? 
    1. Women score lower than men on military intelligence (IQ) tests. 
    2. Women cannot operate high-tech equipment as well as men. 
    3. Women have only recently joined the U.S. armed forces. 
    4. Women are seen as nurturers rather than people who kill. 

72. At every class level 

  1. women have less income, wealth, education, and power than men do. 
  2. women and men have equal amounts of income, wealth, education, and power. 
  3. men outnumber women. 
  4. women see themselves as a minority. 

73. If you could end violence against women in one setting, doing so in which of the following settings would reduce this type of violence the most? 

  1. the workplace 
  2. the home 
  3. public places 
  4. college campuses 

Final Examination 

  1. In what percentage of rapes and attempted rapes on college campuses does the woman know her attacker?
    a. 10% b. 30% c. 70% d. 90% 
  2. Sexual harassment became an issue in the United States in 
    1. the 1990s. 
    2. the 1960s. 
    3. the 1890s. 
    4. the 1780s. 
  3. Most cases of female genital mutilation occur in 
    1. Latin America. 
    2. the United States. 
    3. Africa. 
    4. Asia. 
  4. Sexual harassment is an important social issue because 
    1. it actually targets men more often than women. 
    2. half of working women report receiving unwanted sexual attention. 
    3. it almost always involves blatant threats. 
    4. it almost always leads to violence. 
  5. Structural-functional analysis points out that industrialization encourages
    a. men to take control of the workplace. b. growing gender equality.
    c. women to have more children.
    d. a breakdown of social stability. 
  6. In the United States, _____ people tend to vote Democratic, while _____ people mostly vote Republican. 
    1. rural; urban 
    2. urban; rural 
    3. high-income; low-income 
    4. conservative; liberal 
  1. In the 2012 presidential election, about what percentage of registered voters actually went to the polls? 
    1. about 88 percent 
    2. about 58 percent 
    3. about 38 percent 
    4. about 28 percent 
  2. Which of the following categories of the U.S. population is LEAST likely to vote in national elections? 
    1. African Americans 
    2. white, non-Hispanic people 
    3. Hispanic people 
    4. All of these categories of people are equally likely to vote. 

82. In general, how does income affect the likelihood of voting in the United States? 

  1. Most high-income people vote; most low-income people do not. 
  2. People of all income levels are about equally likely to vote. 
  3. Most low-income people vote; most high-income people do not. 
  4. Higher income increases the share of people who vote among women, but not men. 
  1. A pluralist approach to the U.S. political system suggests that 
    1. power is concentrated in the hands of a few. 
    2. an anti-democratic bias exists in the capitalist system. 
    3. power is widely dispersed throughout society. 
    4. many people do not vote because they are alienated from the political system. 
  2. A power-elite model of the U.S. political system suggests that 
    1. power is concentrated in the hands of a few. 
    2. an anti-democratic bias exists in the capitalist system. 
    3. power is widely dispersed throughout society. 
    4. many people do not vote because they are alienated from the political system. 
  3. The Marxist political-economy model suggests that 
    1. power is no longer concentrated in the hands of a few. 
    2. an anti-democratic bias exists in the capitalist system. 
    3. power is widely dispersed throughout society. 
    4. many people do not vote because they are satisfied with the political system. 

Final Examination 

  1. Which of the following statements is correct? 
    1. Political revolution almost always produces a left-wing government. 
    2. Political revolution almost always produces a right-wing government. 
    3. Political revolution almost always produces a democratic government. 
    4. Revolution can and does produce many types of government. 
  2. Which of the following is a factor encouraging political revolution? 
    1. rising expectation of a better life 
    2. unresponsive government 
    3. radical leadership by intellectuals 
    4. All of these responses are correct. 
  3. Terrorism refers to 
    1. the use of military force by a nation state. 
    2. the use or threat of violence as a political strategy by an individual or group. 
    3. organized, armed conflict between groups. 
    4. unorganized, violent conflict between any two parties. 

89. In general, terrorism is the strategy favored by 

  1. a weak organization against a stronger foe. 
  2. a left-wing organization. 
  3. a right-wing organization. 
  4. a strong organization against a weaker foe. 
  1. Which of the following concepts refers to the use of violence by governments, often against their own people? 
    1. authoritarianism 
    2. state terrorism 
    3. totalitarianism 
    4. counterterrorism 
  2. Which statement about terrorism is TRUE? 
    1. Whether someone is a “terrorist” or a “freedom fighter” is often a matter of definition. 
    2. Democratic societies are especially vulnerable to terrorism. 
    3. Identifying and effectively targeting terrorists is usually difficult. 
    4. All of these responses are correct. 


  1. Which of all U.S. wars was the most deadly in terms of loss of (U.S.) lives? 
    1. the Civil War 
    2. World War I 
    3. World War II 
    4. the War in Iraq 
  2. With respect to war, the text explains that 
    1. human beings are naturally eager to engage in war. 
    2. there is nothing in our human biology that makes it natural to go to war. 
    3. nations usually fight wars simply over wealth. 
    4. All of these responses are correct. 
  3. Most people in the United States who divorce 
    1. remain single. 
    2. experience a rising standard of living. 
    3. remarry within four years. 
    4. have experienced family violence. 

95. In 

the United States, family violence is 

  1. considered a private, family matter. 
  2. a serious, often criminal problem. 
  3. no longer considered a serious issue the way it was in past decades. 
  4. mostly harmful to men. 
  1. Almost all adults who abuse children typically have what in common? 
    1. They are middle class. 
    2. They are women. 
    3. They were abused themselves as children. 
    4. They were married at a very young age. 
  2. Research shows that growing up in a single-parent family 
    1. is beneficial to children. 
    2. has no effect on children. 
    3. can disadvantage children. 
    4. is beneficial to boys, but harmful to girls. 
  1. Mounting research suggests that cohabitation
    a. strengthens a couple’s commitment to one another. b. may actually discourage marriage.
    c. increases the financial security of children.
    d. All of these responses are correct. 
  2. In 1989, which country became the first to permit legal same-sex partnerships with many of the benefits of marriage? 
    1. Denmark 
    2. Canada 
    3. Sweden 
    4. the United States 

100. Looking for evidence about how much the traditional family is eroding, you might point to the fact that 

  1. singlehood is up. 
  2. the divorce rate is up. 
  3. more children are born to single mothers. 
  4. All of these responses are correct. 

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