GED 210 Unit 2 Exam Answers (California Coast University)
1. One goal of anthropological linguistics is to determine the number of phonemes (phonetic structure) that exist in different languages. This goal is accomplished by employing the use of:
a. minimal pairs
b. phone taps
c. maximal differences
d. syntax units
2. The word “lower” contains:
a. two bound morphemes
b. two bound phonemes
c. two free morphemes
d. one bound morpheme and one free morpheme
3. The words “boy” and “girl” are:
a. bound phonemes
b. bound morphemes
c. free morphemes
d. bound phones
4. An example of a bound morpheme in English is:
a. the phrase “boys will be boys”
b. the word “boys”
c. the word “boy”
d. the “s” in the word “boys”
5. How many morphemes are there in the English word “antidisestablishmentarianism”?
6. The goal of ethnosemantics is to understand:
a. that reality is inherently unorganized and can be perceived in any way; thus, color
naming, plant classification, and time categories are completely arbitrary
b. the meanings of words, phrases, and sentences and how members of other societies use
language to organize things, events, and behaviors
c. that languages and behavior are the same
d. that classification systems in all societies are random
7. Linguistic anthropologists find that people who are forced to abandon their native language and culture:
a. begin to lose their self-esteem
b. all speak English
c. are better off socially and economically
d. easily regain both in 100 years
8. The concept of ____________ maintains that societal change occurs when societies borrow cultural traits from one another.
c. evolutionary dispersal
9. The body of anthropological theory concerned with the spread of technology, religion, economic systems, art forms, and other expressions of culture is known as:
10. Grafton Eliot Smith and William Perry, major figures associated with the school of British diffusionism in the early 20th century, proposed that:
a. each culture has a key personality type
b. a culture can only be interpreted in the context of its own historical development
c. culture’s principal function is establishing institutions to guide behavior
d. all aspects of civilization are derived from the culture of ancient Egypt
11. In order for diffusionism to work as envisioned by the British and German schools, adherents had to assume or maintain all of the following ideas except:
a. some peoples were not sufficiently innovative to develop their own cultural traits
b. inherent inferiority of different non-western peoples was assumed
c. cultural traits that were diffused were part of the technological dimension of the society
d. cultural traits in the same geographical region would inevitably spread from one society to another
12. One of boas’ principal criticisms of nineteenth century anthropologists was that:
a. they failed to make use of archaeological evidence for pre-literate societies
b. their theories were based on “armchair anthropology” and not their own fieldwork
c. there was too much cultural relativism in their interpretations
d. they failed to assign adequate importance to biological effects on culture
13. According to Franz Boas, in order to conduct a historical particularist study of a society, one must adopt the notion of ___________, or the belief that each society should be understood in terms of its own cultural practices and values.
a. particular evolution
b. cultural relativism
c. lagged diffusionism
14. During your lifetime you will probably be a member of two families, the family of orientation (the family into which you were born and enculturated) and the family of __________ (the family in which you will have or adopt children).
15. Which of the following is not a function of the family?
a. nurture and enculturation of children
b. regulation of sexual activity
c. protection and support for members
d. regulation of statuses, roles, and gender
16. A typical ____________ family consists of two parents and their immediate biological offspring or adopted children.
17. Marriage within the same social group or category is __________, while __________ is marriage between people from different social categories or groups.
a. incest; outcest
b. endogamy; exogamy
c. in-marriage; out-marriage
d. monogamy; polygamy
18. From a female perspective, you will be a daughter and possibly a mother and wife. As such, you assume what are called __________ roles that correspond to these different status positions.
19. The relationship between age and status is an anthropologically interesting subject. Which of the following statements concerning age and status is correct?
a. Since age is biologically determined, the statuses attached to each age category are the same in every culture around the world.
b. The elderly occupy a high level of status in all societies.
c. Anthropologists doing cross-cultural research have found that age does not influence status; statuses are either ascribed at birth or earned during one’s lifetime, and they do not change even if one ages.
d. Anthropologists have found that age stratification varies in accordance with the level of technological development; the elderly have relatively high status in many preindustrial societies, but experience a loss of status in most industrial societies.
20. “Fission” and “fusion” in hunting and gathering societies refer to:
a. hazards of contacts with the industrialized world
b. cyclical change in population density relative to resources
c. decision-making processes used by tribal leaders
d. the dynamics of wild plant resources
21. Hunting and gathering societies will sometimes resort to infanticide in order to:
a. engage in more frequent intercourse
b. supplement scarce hunting resources
c. reduce the effects of anticipated food shortages
d. make sacrifices to tribal gods
22. Which of the following would not have the effect of lowering fertility?
a. marriage at an older age
b. weaning babies at an older age
c. practicing infanticide
d. an earlier onset of menarche
23. The most likely reason why hunter-gatherer technology is limited to simple tools made of stone, wood, and bone is because foraging peoples:
a. lack the basic intelligence necessary to make anything more complex
b. are too busy looking for food to spend time on more advanced tools
c. have not acquired knowledge of more sophisticated technologies
d. substitute profound knowledge of their environment for complex tools
24. The principal technology used for obtaining plant foods by tropical foragers is the:
b. blowgun and darts
c. polished stone axe
d. digging stick
25. The _________ produced the most extensive material culture found among hunting and gathering societies.
a. Kung San