GED 260 Final Exam Answers (California Coast University)
1) In a __________ state, an individual may be prosecuted for violating traditional notions of right and wrong, even though no violation of written law occurred.
B) statutory law
C) common law
D) none of the above
2) According to John F. Galliher, legal definitions of criminality are arrived at through a __________ process.
3) The belief that crime is the result of criteria that have been built into the law by powerful groups is the basis of the __________ perspective on crime.
4) The pluralistic perspective suggests that behaviors are typically criminalized through
A) general agreement of members of society.
B) a political process.
C) the existence of shared norms and values.
D) none of the above
5) A police officer or probation officer is best described as a
A) criminal justice professional.
D) none of the above
6) The number of personnel employed by private security agencies today is __________ that of public law enforcement agencies.
B) equal to
C) four times
7) Criminology is
A) a collection of theories.
B) a profession.
C) a field of study.
D) all of the above
8) A(n) __________ theory of crime is one that attempts to explain all or most forms of criminal conduct through a single, overarching approach.
9) The social responsibility perspective is affiliated with __________ theory.
A) culture conflict
B) routine activities
C) social learning
D) rational choice
10) The __________ contributes to the criminal event by failing to prevent criminal activity.
A) general public
B) criminal justice system
11) If you needed official police statistics on crime in Texas, you would use
A) a self-report study.
B) the NCVS.
C) the UCR.
D) none of the above
12) The most common motivation for hate crimes is
A) religious bias.
B) bias based on ethnicity/national origin.
C) bias based on sexual orientation.
D) racial bias.
13) Which of the following was not a possible cause of the decrease in reported crime since the mid-1990s?
A) New strict laws, an expanded justice system, and an increase in police funding
B) Economic expansion
C) Social upheaval
D) Changes in crime-fighting technologies
14) Drunk driving is an example of
A) felony homicide.
B) first-degree murder.
C) negligent homicide.
D) second-degree murder.
15) According to the NCVS, which of the following individuals is most likely to be a robbery victim?
A) A 25-year-old man
B) A 12-year-old boy
C) A 65-year-old woman
D) A 14-year-old girl
16) UCR data on Part II offenses includes
A) information on crimes reported to the police.
B) information on arrests made by the police.
C) information on the dark figure of crime.
D) none of the above
17) Which of the following is not a finding of the National Youth Survey?
A) Violent offenders begin lives of crime earlier than originally believed.
B) There is a consistent progression from less serious to more serious acts of delinquency over time.
C) Females are involved in a smaller proportion of crime than previously thought.
D) Race differentials in crime are smaller than traditional data sources indicated.
18) One of the two most common reasons for not reporting violent crime is that the victim
A) fears future victimization by the same offender.
B) considers the crime to be a private matter.
C) believes the police will be ineffective in solving the crime.
D) is embarrassed over the type of victimization.
19) Which of the following individuals is least likely to be a victim of personal theft, according to the NCVS?
A) A white female over the age of 65
B) A black female over the age of 65
C) A white male over the age of 65
D) A black male over the age of 65
20) The findings that led criminologists to question the existence of a relationship between social class and crime came from
A) the UCR.
B) the NCVS.
D) self-report studies.
21) Which of the following is not one of Kenneth R. Hoover’s four uses of theory in social scientific thinking?
A) Theories can be improved through hypothesis testing.
B) Theories link studies together.
C) Theories allow us to interpret the larger meaning of our findings for ourselves and others.
D) Theories provide patterns for the interpretation of data.
22) Confounding effects are
A) a method of increasing internal validity.
B) experimental interventions that cause behavioral changes.
C) a method of increasing external validity.
D) explanations that rival the explanatory power of the hypothesis under study.
23) A differential loss of respondents from comparison groups in a research study may result in
A) experimental mortality.
D) differential selection.
24) Which of the following threats to internal validity would fall under the problem of experimental mortality?
A) During a study involving interviews of inmates by students, a number of the student interviewers graduate and are replaced by new student interviewers.
B) Subjects become fatigued during the study and their response time is affected.
C) During a study comparing two groups of inmates, many of the members from one of the study groups are approved for parole.
D) A new prison warden arrives during the implementation of a study on violence in a prison.
25) Which of the following factors may threaten the external validity of a research design?
C) Statistical regression
26) __________ is the process by which individuals are assigned to study groups without biases or differences resulting from selection.
D) Net effects
27) Inferential statistics involves
A) highlighting the relationships within the data.
B) describing data.
C) summarizing data.
D) generalizing findings obtained from data.
28) The degree of dispersion of scores around the mean is known as the
C) standard deviation.
D) significance test.
29) In a research report, the __________ is a brief summation of the report’s findings.
A) review of existing literature
30) Which of the following is not one of the basic assumptions or principles of the Classical School?
A) Punishment is sometimes required to deter law violators.
B) Root principles of right and wrong are inherent in the nature of things.
C) Most human behavior results from forces that are beyond the control of the individual.
D) Human beings are fundamentally rational.
31) An individual who dresses in an unusual way is most likely to be violating a __________ of his or her social group.
D) none of the above
32) Which of the following was not one of the legal documents contained in the Justinian Code?
A) The Code
B) The Summary
C) The Digest
D) The Institutes
33) In which year was the Magna Carta signed?
B) 450 B.C.
D) 1700 B.C.
34) Which of the following works was written by John Locke?
A) Essay Concerning Human Understanding
B) The Spirit of Laws
D) The Rights of Man
35) John Locke’s concept of checks and balances between divisions of government was elaborated on by
36) According to Beccaria, criminals should be punished based on
A) the level of revenge desired by society.
B) the degree of injury they caused.
C) an assessment of their criminal intent.
D) None of the above
37) __________ seeks to prevent a particular offender from engaging in repeat criminality.
B) General deterrence
C) Specific deterrence
38) __________ controls crime by imprisoning specific individuals.
A) Truth in sentencing
B) Selective incapacitation
C) Determinate sentencing
D) Collective incapacitation
39) __________ developed the theory of phrenology.
A) Johann Gaspar Spurzheim
B) Konrad Lorenz
C) Franz Joseph Gall
D) Cesare Lombroso
40) The Female Offender was written by
A) Charles Goring.
B) William Sheldon.
C) Cesare Lombroso.
D) Ernest Hooton.
41) Crime and the Man was written by
A) Stephen Schafer.
B) Earnest Hooton.
C) William Sheldon.
D) Charles Goring.
42) Which of the following methods of dealing with criminals was favored by Earnest Hooton?
A) Community service
D) Rehabilitation programs
43) Which of the following was not one of Stephen Schafer’s criticisms of Hooton’s work?
A) He did not provide convincing evidence that the criminal’s inferiority was inherited.
B) His criminal population was not a representative sample.
C) He failed to show evidence that rehabilitation could have a significant impact on offenders.
D) He failed to recognize that members of his control group might have been involved in crime.
44) James Q. Wilson and Richard J. Herrnstein wrote
A) Creating Born Criminals.
B) Sisters in Crime.
C) Crime and Human Nature.
45) The book The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature was written by
A) James Q. Wilson.
B) Steven Pinker.
C) Edward O. Wilson.
D) C. Ray Jeffery.
46) Which of the following was not one of C. Ray Jeffery’s elements for a comprehensive biologically based crime prevention program?
A) The use of biologically-based punishments such as castration for rape and child sexual molestation.
B) Conducting biological research in prisons and treatment facilities to help identify the root causes of aggression and violence.
C) Monitoring children through early development to identify early symptoms of behavioral disorder.
D) Neurological examinations when necessary.
47) Which of the following is not a form of psychopathology?
D) All of the above are forms of psychopathology.
48) According to Cleckley, one characteristic of the psychopathic personality is
A) an inability to feel guilt or shame.
B) delusions or hallucinations.
C) an ability to learn from experience.
D) a distinct life plan.
49) Crime and Personality was written by
A) Albert Bandura.
B) Hervey Cleckley.
C) Ivan Pavlov.
D) Hans Eysenck.
50) According to Freud, the __________ develops into a moral guide to right and wrong.
51) Which of the following is not a characteristic of a psychotic individual?
A) Compulsive and obsessive behavior
B) Moods and mood swings
C) A marked inefficiency in getting along with others and caring for oneself
D) A grossly distorted conception of reality
52) Which of the following is not one the three laws in Gabriel Tarde’s theory of human behavior?
A) Individuals in close intimate contact with one another tend to imitate each other’s behavior.
B) New acts and behaviors tend to reinforce or replace others.
C) Imitation moves from the top down.
D) Suggestibility is a key cause of criminal behavior.
53) Under federal law, a criminal defendant found not guilty by reason of insanity must have a psychological or psychiatric examination and a hearing held within __________ days after the not guilty verdict.
54) __________ studied Polish immigrants in American cities and suggested the increased crime rates among these people was due to social disorganization.
A) W.I. Thomas and Florian Znaniecki
B) Robert Park and Ernest Burgess
C) Steven Messner and Richard Rosenfeld
D) Clifford Shaw and Henry McKay
55) The social pathology model was used by early social __________ theorists.
56) Early ecological theories of crime were collectively referred to as the __________ School of Criminology.
C) New York
57) Which of the following is not one of the approaches upon which environmental criminology builds?
A) Strain theory
B) Situational crime prevention
C) Ecological approaches
D) Routine activities theory
58) The average age for joining a gang today is approximately __________ years of
59) Which of the following was not part of Mobilization for Youth?
A) Voter registration
B) Boycotts against schools
C) Welfare-to-work programs
D) Rent strikes against slum landlords
60) Social control theories focus on
A) the process through which social integration develops.
B) physical features of the social environment.
C) static aspects of the personality.
D) causative factors in criminal behavior.
61) In the case of sickness, the failure of the public health system or the unavailability of preventive medicine would be an example of a(n) __________ containment or control mechanism.
62) The aspect of the social bond which sets social bond theory apart from subcultural approaches is
63) __________ focuses on early childhood risk factors for gang involvement.
A) The Montreal Preventive Treatment Program
D) OJJDP‚Äôs Comprehensive Strategy Program
64) Which of the following is not an example of desistance?
65) The primary goal of the __________ program is to provide a positive alternative to gangs for at-risk youth.
A) Comprehensive Strategy
B) Targeted Outreach
66) Which of the following is not one of the principles characterizing the consensus perspective?
A) A belief that law violators are representative of society as a whole
B) A belief in the existence of core values
C) The assumption that the law serves all people equally
D) The idea that laws reflect the collective will of society
67) In 1905, __________ described the struggle between the haves and the have-nots as a natural consequence of a capitalist society.
A) William Chambliss
B) George Vold
C) Richard Quinney
D) Willem Bonger
68) According to the conflict perspective, the fundamental nature of group conflict centers on
A) the accumulation of wealth.
B) the exercise of political power.
C) socially significant differences.
D) None of the above
69) According to __________, a spokesperson for modern radical thinkers, criminal behavior results from the coercive power of the state to enforce the will of the ruling class.
A) Harold Pepinsky
B) Richard Quinney
C) William Chambliss
D) Ralf Dahrendorf
70) __________ is a major source of left realist writings in England.
A) Jock Young
B) Walter DeKeseredy
C) Dragan Milovanovic
D) John Hagan
71) Power-control theory was developed by
A) John Hagan.
B) Rita J. Simon.
C) Kathleen Daly.
D) Harold Pepinsky.
72) The primary theoretical perspective used to explain the fact that victims and offenders who are intimately known to each other are disproportionately represented in homicide statistics is
A) selective disinhibition.
B) the critical criminological perspective.
C) the subculture of violence thesis.
D) the general theory of crime.
73) Which of the following is not a thrill motivated serial killer?
A) A dominance killer
B) A sexual sadist
C) A protection oriented killer
D) They are all types of thrill motivated serial killers.
74) Which of the following is not a rape myth?
A) Women are asking for it by wearing provocative clothing
B) Women bring false rape charges to get even with men
C) Women say no when they really mean yes
D) They are all current rape myths.
75) The first state to redefine “rape” to include a broader range of behaviors, circumstances, and victims was
C) New York.
76) Same sex rape is most common
A) in correctional institutions.
B) among strangers.
C) on college campuses.
D) all of the above
77) __________ is defined as “the unlawful taking, carrying, leading, or riding away of property from the possession of another.”
78) According to research on theft on college campuses, the individual most likely to be victimized is
A) a staff member.
B) a student.
C) a faculty member.
D) They are all equally likely to be victimized.
79) When considering theft from motor vehicles, the most frequently stolen items are
B) external vehicle parts.
C) cellular phones.
D) stereo equipment.
80) According to McShane and Noonan, the primary similarity between the reactionary and rebel types of shoplifters is
A) both are more likely to be older.
B) both have the economic ability to pay for the stolen goods.
C) both have significant prior histories of offending.
D) both are of the same gender.
81) A fence commits the crime of
A) receiving stolen property.
B) motor vehicle theft.
82) Early definitions of white-collar crime focused on the
A) the violator involved.
B) nature of the crime.
C) the work environment.
D) All of the above
83) A(n) __________ crime is any act punishable by law that is committed through opportunity created in the course of a legal occupation.
84) The idea that white-collar crime may be motivated by a disparity between corporate goals and legitimate means was proposed by
A) John Braithwaite.
B) Gary Green and Gilbert Geis.
C) Edwin Sutherland.
D) Travis Hirschi and Michael Gottfredson.
85) Russian organized criminal groups currently operate in __________ states in the United States.
86) According to Gary Potter, the __________ aspects of organized crime offer the most useful data for formulating future policy.
87) The League of Spiritual Discovery emphasized the use of
88) Which of the following drugs is not a stimulant?
89) The __________ placed the distribution of a number of essential chemicals used in the production of illicit drugs under federal control.
A) Chemical Diversion and Trafficking Act
B) Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act
C) Anti-Drug Abuse Act
D) Harrison Act
90) The majority of the cocaine entering the United States is smuggled in using
A) maritime vessels.
B) commercial airplanes.
C) private airplanes.
D) overland transportation.
91) The Mollen Commission found that the severity of police corruption in New
York City had __________ since previous investigations.
A) increased significantly
B) decreased slightly
C) increased slightly
D) decreased significantly
92) According to David Carter’s classification scheme, techno-vandalism would fall into which type of computer crime?
A) Crimes in which computers serve as targets
B) Crimes in which the computer is incidental to other crimes
C) Crimes in which computers serve as the instrumentality of the crime
D) Crimes associated with the prevalence of computers
93) The __________ Act made it illegal to use interstate telephone lines in furtherance of telemarketing fraud.
A) No Electronic Theft
B) Communications Decency
C) Computer Abuse Amendments
D) Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement
94) Which of the following best describes the average hacker?
A) A 20-year-old male living in San Francisco.
B) A 35-year-old male living in New York.
C) A 25-year-old male living in Paris.
D) A 23-year-old female living in Chicago.
95) The primary motivation of the average hacker is
A) to profit financially by hacking.
B) to create a computer security system.
C) to gain access to computer networks.
D) to demonstrate network vulnerability.
96) __________ involves a complete and thorough assessment of the kinds of perils facing an organization.
A) Expert systems analysis
B) Threat analysis
C) DNA profiling
D) Audit trail analysis
97) __________ is a process of social homogenization by which the experiences of everyday life can foster a standardization of cultural expression around the world.
A) comparative criminology
98) Which of the following statements about terrorism is true?
A) Terrorism is aimed at military targets or combat-ready troops.
B) Terrorism is politically motivated.
C) Terrorism is usually an impulsive act of rage.
D) Terrorism is perpetrated for criminal gain.
99) The Bremmer Commission considers the country’s first priority to be
A) prosecuting known terrorist groups.
B) catching known terrorists.
C) dealing with the aftermath of terrorist attacks in the U.S.
D) preventing terrorist attacks.
100) The most active state sponsor of terrorism in the world is
B) North Korea.