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Ashworth PS420 Exam 7 Part 1 Answers / Learning Theories

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PS420 Learning Theories Exam 7 Part 1 Answers (Ashworth College)

Question 1 of 40

2.5/ 2.5 Points

It has been proposed that behavioral contrast occurs because:

 

 

A. responding is shifted from a schedule with low reinforcement to one with higher reinforcement.

 

B. there is less habituation or satiation when the reinforcers are reduced on one reinforcement schedule.

 

C. the subject compares the value of one schedule to what is available on the other schedule.

 

D. All of the above

 

Question 2 of 40

2.5/ 2.5 Points

Experiments on learning sets have shown that:

 

 

A. animals cannot generalize from one problem to another if the stimuli of the two problems are completely unrelated.

 

B. animals can learn to pay attention to a certain stimulus dimension, such as color.

 

C. animals can learn to ignore a certain stimulus dimension, such as color.

 

D. some species acquire learning sets much more quickly than others.

 

Question 3 of 40

2.5/ 2.5 Points

According to Weber's law, which of the following temporal discriminations would be the most difficult for an animal to learn?

 

 

A. A 20-second tone versus a 40-second tone

 

B. A 5-second tone versus a 7-second tone

 

C. A 1-second tone versus a 2-second tone

 

D. A 20-second tone versus a 40-second light

 

Question 4 of 40

2.5/ 2.5 Points

The peak procedure has been used to demonstrate an animal's ability:

 

 

A. to discriminate between two stimuli of different durations.

 

B. to discriminate between two different numbers of objects.

 

C. to time the duration of an interval that sometimes ends with a reinforcer.

 

D. All of the above

 

Question 5 of 40

2.5/ 2.5 Points

In some cases, a person may have difficulty studying in a particular location because that location is associated with:

 

 

A. discrimination reversals.

 

B. directed forgetting.

 

C. many behaviors other than studying.

 

D. All of the above

 

Question 6 of 40

2.5/ 2.5 Points

Which of the following has NOT been found in any creatures other than humans?

 

 

A. The correct use of pronouns and prepositions

 

B. Reference to objects and events not present

 

C. Accurate counting above 12 objects

 

D. The ability to recognize a repeating serial pattern

 

Question 7 of 40

2.5/ 2.5 Points

According to Wagner's theory of rehearsal in animals, a surprising post trial episode can diminish the conditioning from a CS US pairing because:

 

 

A. surprising events attract a good deal of attention.

 

B. short term memory has limited capacity.

 

C. both rehearsal and attention make use of short term memory.

 

D. All of the above

 

Question 8 of 40

0.0/ 2.5 Points

In the research of Jenkins and Harrison, one group of pigeons received intradimensional training a 1000 Hz tone was an S+ and a 950 Hz tone was an S . In a generalization test along the dimension of tone frequency, this group produced:

 

 

A. typical generalization gradients with peaks at 1000 Hz.

 

B. extremely narrow generalization gradients.

 

C. flat generalization gradients.

 

D. no generalization to other tones.

 

Question 9 of 40

2.5/ 2.5 Points

Which of the following response rules is consistent with the relational theory of stimulus control?

 

 

A. Choose the greener of the two stimuli

 

B. Of the three stimuli, choose the one of intermediate brightness

 

C. Both a and b

 

D. Neither a nor b

 

Question 10 of 40

2.5/ 2.5 Points

The context-shift effect in memory is the finding that recall can be better if:

 

 

A. the context is free from distractions.

 

B. you switch to a new context when trying to remember something.

 

C. the context during recall is the same as when the learning took place.

 

D. None of the above

 

Question 11 of 40

2.5/ 2.5 Points

__________ is the understanding that objects continue to exist when they are not visible.

 

 

A. Directed categorization

 

B. Object permanence

 

C. Metacognition

 

D. Reinforcer habituation

 

Question 12 of 40

2.5/ 2.5 Points

Studies have shown that chimpanzees can solve problems involving:

 

 

A. analogies.

 

B. transitive inference.

 

C. Both a and b

 

D. Neither a nor b

 

Question 13 of 40

2.5/ 2.5 Points

Experiments on sensory deprivation have shown that if birds are prevented from seeing different colors when they are young:

 

 

A. the birds are color blind as adults.

 

B. the birds can still see different colors but respond to all of them in the same way.

 

C. the birds may still discriminate between different colors in a generalization test.

 

D. the birds will discriminate between different colors in a generalization test only after they receive discrimination training.

 

Question 14 of 40

2.5/ 2.5 Points

Clark's nutcrackers can hide several thousand seeds in different caches and retrieve them much later. To accomplish this feat, the birds appear to use:

 

 

A. memory for specific visual landmarks.

 

B. their sense of smell.

 

C. the appearance of the soil above a cache.

 

D. random trial and error.

 

Question 15 of 40

2.5/ 2.5 Points

Studies have shown that cats and dogs can solve problems involving:

 

 

A. analogies.

 

B. object permanence.

 

C. Both a and b

 

D. Neither a nor b

 

Question 16 of 40

2.5/ 2.5 Points

Research has suggested that rats in a radial-arm maze tend to use:

 

 

A. prospective coding.

 

B. retrospective coding.

 

C. Both a and b

 

D. Neither a nor b

 

Question 17 of 40

2.5/ 2.5 Points

The phenomenon of peak shift, the most rapid responding is shifted:

 

 

A. toward the more intense stimulus.

 

B. away from the more intense stimulus.

 

C. toward the S.-

 

D. away from the S.-

 

Question 18 of 40

2.5/ 2.5 Points

Which of the following response rules is consistent with the absolute theory of stimulus control?

 

 

A. Choose the greener of the two stimuli

 

B. Of the three stimuli, choose the one of intermediate brightness

 

C. Both a and b

 

D. Neither a nor b

 

Question 19 of 40

2.5/ 2.5 Points

Which of the following provides evidence for maintenance rehearsal in animals?

 

 

A. Research on discrimination reversals

 

B. Research on directed forgetting

 

C. Research on the speed of acquisition in classical conditioning

 

D. All of the above

 

Question 20 of 40

2.5/ 2.5 Points

Which of the following is NOT an example of the theory of behavioral contrast?

 

 

A. Directed categorization hypothesis

 

B. The hypothesis that focuses on the decrease in reinforcement in the changed component

 

C. Behavioral reallocation hypothesis

 

D. Reinforcer habituation/satiation hypothesis

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